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History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well. His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge. Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge.
He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking.
Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance. Critical thinking was described by Richard W. Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it.
According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.
During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems other than 'improving' one's own thinking. Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker.
One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.WHAT IS A CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY? Many college assignments require you to support a thesis.
The concept of a critical thinking essay is that you start without an end in mind. You don't necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the outcome.
How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading.
by Susan M. Brookhart. Table of Contents. Chapter 1.
What Are Rubrics and Why Are They Important? Abstract In this interview for Think magazine (April ’’92), Richard Paul provides a quick overview of critical thinking and the issues surrounding it: defining it, common mistakes in assessing it, its relation to communication skills, self-esteem, collaborative learning, motivation, curiosity, job skills for the future, national standards, and assessment strategies.
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding the logical connection between ideas. Critical thinking has been the subject of much debate and thought since the time of early Greek philosophers such as Plato and Socrates and has continued to be a subject of.
Critical thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. The ability to think clearly and rationally is important whatever we choose to do.
If you work in education, research, finance, management or the legal profession, then critical thinking is obviously important. Critical thinking is an utmost important part of creativity and we often need critical thinking to help us in evaluating and improving our creativity skills.
Besides, critical thinking teaches us how to differentiate emotion and reason.