General Introduction to Qin Dynasty Qin Dynasty was the first unified, multi-national and power-centralized state in the Chinese history. It lasted from BC to BC. Although surviving only 15 years, the dynasty held an important role in Chinese history and it exerted great influence on the following dynasties. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi.
Its origins can be traced back to the beginnings of the Eastern Zhou period, to BC. In the aftermath, a lord loyal to the Zhou drove the barbarians back beyond the frontiers. In gratitude, the new Zhou king gave him lands around the old capital as a fief. He was also given a promise that he and his successors could keep any other lands that they were able to take from the barbarians.
At this time the area was beset by hostile barbarian tribes, and this prince and his successors had to fight hard to keep their land. However, little by little they drove the barbarians back. Their fief gradually expanded in size to take its place amongst the many principalities of later Zhou China.
Thus the state of Qin came into being. Like other states on the frontiers, it was regarded as semi-barbarian by the states of eastern China. While its rulers and people may have lacked culture and refinement, however, they were tough soldiers, and this would stand them in good stead in the future.
For a long time Qin continued to expand its territory by conquering neighbouring barbarian tribes. It was only in the mid-4th century BC that it began to engage in wars with other Chinese states. He created a unified code of laws, and an efficient bureaucracy, operating according to strict rules and regulations.
He carried out economic measures to increase the wealth of the state, especially by large-scale irrigation projects which greatly expanded agricultural production. Marble Bust of Statesman Shang Yang. Reproduced under Create Commons 2.
He permitted a free market in land, and required peasants to pay taxes in crops or money rather than labour services. Most famously of all, he developed a system of collective responsibility, whereby the population was divided into units of families each, with all members of a unit collectively responsible for the crimes of any individual within that unit.
The increased strength that these reforms gave the state of Qin was soon apparent. Qin armies conquered large areas of neighbouring states to north and south.
These conquests in turn led to further increases in strength; the Qin government carried out the largest irrigation project that had ever been undertaken in China and therefore probably in the world up to that point in its newly annexed southern territories, bringing much new land under cultivation.
The Qin state was by no means unique in carrying out such reforms. The southern state of Chu, for example, had also reformed its institutions to make itself more fitted to war. It continued to expand during the period, and like Qin, it benefited from the reforms carried out by a famous Legalist minister.
For example, Chu was the first to divide its territory into districts governed by officials appointed by the king to act on his behalf. This was the origin of the system of provincial administration in China which would last with many adjustments until the twentieth century.
Timemap of the Warring States period of Ancient China Unlike in Qin, however, these reforms were undermined by opposition from the local aristocracy in the years which followed. Chu was therefore unable to build on these reforms in an enduring way.
This was probably due to its particularly exposed position on the frontiers with hostile barbarians, making efficient administration and effective military capability a constant necessity.
Moreover, Shang Yang, had openly encouraged the Qin state to think in terms of unifying all China under its rule. Qin conquests In BC, Qin destroyed the last feeble remnants of the Zhou ruling house — a clear statement of intent.
Ten years later a new young king, Ying Zheng, came to throne. Like Shang Yang they were both followers of the Legalist school of thought, and they built on his earlier reforms to make Qin even more a state whose people served the state unquestioningly.
In the Qin conquests, diplomacy and trickery seem to have been as important as military might. The Qin government took advantage of a great earthquake and famine suffered by the people of Zhao to attack it.
When success still eluded them, the Qin sent secret agents to sow suspicion between the king of Zhao and his generals, which gravely compromised their defences.
In Wei, the Qin diverted the waters of the Yellow River straight into the capital, drowning over a hundred thousand people. In Qi, the Qin bribed the chief minister to persuade the king not to send any help to the other states as they were, one by one, swallowed up by Qin; and then at the due time, to surrender the state peacefully to Qin.
In places such as Chu, however, there was no alternative but for Qin forces to slog it out for years until opposition had been overcome. The Qin empire Within ten years the Qin had conquered all the other states.
With the completion of the unification of China.The Qin dynasty came to prominence as the new imperial dynasty (/ B.C.) after conquering rival kingdoms and when its first emperor, the absolute monarch Qin Shi Huang (Shi Huangdi or Shih Huang-ti) unified China.
The Qin Empire, also known as Ch'in, is likely where the name China originates. The Qin dynasty was the first to bring unity to ancient China. The earliest Great Wall of China dates to the period of the Qin empire.
Qin dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China and its reign lasted from to BC. Lasting only 15 years, it was the shortest dynasty in Chinese history. Though it ruled for only a short duration, Qin dynasty made several important contributions in the development of China.
The dynasty was originated by the state of Qin, one of the many small feudal states into which China was divided between and bce. The Qin, which occupied the strategic Wei River valley in the extreme northwestern area of the country, was one of the least Sinicized of those small states and one of .
The Qin dynasty was brief in duration ( BCE) but very important in Chinese history. It followed the Zhou dynasty ( BCE) and it ended when Liu Bang became the king of Han in BCE (the formal beginning of the Han dynasty). Despite its brevity, . The rise and fall of the great dynasties forms a thread that runs through Chinese history, almost from the beginning.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1st, , China has become a socialist society and become stronger and stronger.