Repetition can build brand familiarity, but it can also lead to consumer fatigue, where consumers become so tired of an ad that they tune out or actively avoid the product. Therefore, to be effective, repetition must occur in the right proportion, as too much repetition may be counter-productive as an advertising strategy. Types of Repetition The idea behind repetition is that when the consumer goes to buy a particular product, the name of your brand is the first one that comes to mind.
Marks Reviewed work s: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.
RETHANS, elaborationmodelof messagerepetition effects Theauthorsreviewthe two-factor and report a study of the model'sapplicabilityto new productadvertising.
The inverted-U betweenrepdo relationship studyfindings not supportthe hypothesized and product. However,the underetitionand attitudetowarda novel commercial lyingprocessesof learning,tediumarousal,and elaborationwere observed.
Viewer lengthdid not moderatethese processes. Receiver A I Knowledge, and of the I Commercial Test Two-Factor Model I The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long been of considerable basic and pragmatic interest to marketers.
Early research on the effects of repetition was motivated by the need to estimate the into of parameters a repetitionfunction to be incorporated advertising media models Aaker ; Little and Lodish ; Ray and Sawyer a, b; Ray, Sawyer, and Strong Subsequent research examined the effects of advertising repetition on more general outcome measures such as attitudes, recall, and behavioral intention Ginter ; Gorn and Goldberg ; Mitchell and Olson ; Winter More recently, research efforts have shifted toward a consideration of the underlying processes that create the various observed responses to an advertising message after multiple exposures.
Researchers adopting the latter avenue of inquiry are attempting to show how the effects of repetition might be explained by message-receiver-generated ognitive responses Belch ; Calder and Sternthal ; Sawyer ; Wright Rethans and John L.
The authors thank Daniel W.
The research was funded by a research grant to the first two authors from the Center for Research, The Pennsylvania State University. In particular, Berlyne's two-factor theory and the twofactor cognitive response model by Cacioppo and Pettyhave been thought to hold promise for explaining past empirical results in marketing.
Much more research, however, is warrantedto test the appropriateness and practical utility of these theoretical accounts Cacioppo and Petty ; Sawyer Specifically, additional research is needed to determine whether the two-factor model and the processes learning and tedium presumed to underlie attitude formation are appropriate for describing audiences' response to repeated advertisement exposures.
We report a study designed to test the two-factor model within a new product advertising context. To provide a more thorough test of the model, the ad-processing-related variables commercial length and receiver knowledge were incorporatedin the experimental design.
This exposure effect has been replicated under many conditions. Other studies, however, have found moderation effects i. Several theories-response competition, optimal arousal, and two- Journal of Marketing Research Vol.
In combination, these opposite processes bring about the inverted-U relationship between repetition and message acceptance. In particular, the variables receiver knowledge and commercial length are seen as being manageriallyimportantfactors and have been noted for restrictingor enhancing the extent and nature of cognitive elaboration Bogart and Lehman ; Edell and Mitchell ; Gardner ; Olson, Toy, and Dover ; Webb ; Wells, Leavitt, and McConville ; Wheatley For example, Edell and Mitchell suggest that receivers' elaboration is based in part on relevant knowledge structures.
The specific content of these structures is presumed to determine the number, type, and content of cognitive responses to advertisements. Hence, when considering repetition effects, one might reasonably expect differences in receiver knowledge to affect viewers' rates of learning, tedium arousal, and attitude formation.
Similarly, message length has been shown to affect receivers' processing of a persuasive message Calder, Insko, and Yandell In an advertisingcontext Wells, Leavitt, and McConville and Wheatley found that the longer commercial resulted in different viewer responses.
In the Wells et al.
The larger number of vignettes was thought to have caused respondents to engage in more counterargumentationwhich led to a more negative attitudetoward the advertisement.George E. Belch and Michael A.
Belch (),"An Investigation of the Effects of Repetition on Cognitive and Affective Reactions T0 Humorous and Serious Television Commercials", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 11, eds.
Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: The cognitive effects of advertising repetition are examined by considering the impact of three levels of TV commercial exposure within a one-hour program. Attitudes and purchase intentions were not affected by message repetition, although cognitive responses became more negative as .
The cognitive effects of advertising repetition are examined by considering the impact of three levels of TV commercial exposure within a one-hour program. Attitudes and purchase intentions were not affected by message repetition, although cognitive responses became more negative as .
Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A repetition effects have been borrowed from the social Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A Test of the Two-Factor Model.
Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Length:? Receiver A I Knowledge, and of the I Commercial Test Two-Factor Model I The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long been of considerable basic and pragmatic interest to marketers.
The following predictionsconcerningthe effects of television commercial message repetition on the relevancy and mediatingrole of cognitive responses will be examined: H2: The frequency of topic-irrelevant ideation increases as exposure to a television commercial increases.