Most people think of feminism and women whenever gender is mentioned. However, there is more to gender than focusing on inequalities between men and women. University students, who may deal with gender related issues, may find themselves short of essay topics. Here are some prompts that may help them Masculinity and feminine norms:
Morton believed that intelligence was correlated with brain size and varied between racial groups  Francis Galtonthe English eugenicist who wrote extensively on the relation between intelligence and social class In the 18th century, European philosophers and scientists such as VoltaireDavid HumeImmanuel Kantand Carl Linnaeusproposed the existence of different mental abilities among the races.
He based his estimations on observations from his and others' travels, the number and quality of intellectual achievements of different groups, and on the percentage of "eminent men" in each of these groups.
Galton argued that intelligence was normally distributed in all racial and ethnic groups, and that the means of the distributions varied between the groups. In Galton's estimation ancient Attic Greeks had been the people with the highest average intelligence, followed by contemporary Englishmen, with black Africans at a lower level, and Australian Aborigines lower still.
Meade Bache of the University of Pennsylvania published an article in Psychological Review claiming that reaction time increases with evolution. He hypothesized that the long reaction time of White Americans was to be explained by their possessing more contemplative brains which did not function well on tasks requiring automatic responses.
This was one of the first examples of modern scientific racismin which science was used to bolster beliefs in the superiority of a particular race.
Indeed, experience with the Negro in classrooms indicates that it is impossible to get the child to do anything with continued accuracy, and similarly in industrial pursuits, the Negro shows a woeful lack of power of sustained activity and constructive conduct.
Goddard had suggested with Terman that "feeble-mindedness" was hereditary In George O. Ferguson conducted research in his Columbia Ph. Goddardadapted the Stanford-Binet tests as multiple choice group tests for use by the US army.
InYerkes devised a version of this test for civilians, the National Intelligence Test, which was used in all levels of education and in business. Its causes and consequencesthat "feeble-mindedness" was hereditary; and in Yerkes in his book with Yoakum on the Army Mental Tests described how they "were originally intended, and are now definitely known, to measure native intellectual ability.
In the USA, however, independently and prior to the IQ tests, there had been political pressure for such eugenic policies, to be enforced by sterilization; in due course IQ tests were later used as justification for sterilizing the mentally retarded.
Already in Goddard reported on the low IQ scores of new arrivals at Ellis Island ; and Yerkes argued from his army test scores that there were consistently lower IQ levels amongst those from Eastern and Southern Europe, which could lead to a decline in the national intelligence.
Inin his book A study of American intelligence, Carl Brigham wrote that on the basis of the army tests, "The decline in intelligence is due to two factors, the change in races migrating to this country, and to the additional factor of sending lower and lower representatives of each race.
Immigration should not only be restrictive, but highly selective. While Gould and Kamin argued that the psychometric claims of Nordic superiority had a profound influence on the institutionalisation of the immigration law, other scholar's have argued that "the eventual passage of the 'racist' immigration law of was not crucially affected by the contributions of Yerkes or other psychologists.
In Floyd Allport wrote in his book "Social Psychology"  that the French sociologist Gustave Le Bon was incorrect in asserting "a gap between inferior and superior species" and pointed to "social inheritance" and "environmental factors" as factors that accounted for differences.
Nevertheless, he conceded that "the intelligence of the white race is of a more versatile and complex order than that of the black race. It is probably superior to that of the red or yellow races. He considered it advisable to "suspend judgment and keep our eyes open from year to year for fresh and more conclusive evidence that will probably be discovered".
The second was published by the Eugenics Societyof which he had been a research fellow: In Cattell wrote that, of all the European races, the "Nordic race was the most evolved in intelligence and stability of temperament.
He wrote that in the past "the backward branches of the tree of mankind" had been lopped off as "the American Indians, the Black Australians, the Mauris and the negroes had been driven by bloodshed from their lands", unaware of "the biological rationality of that destiny.
He spent the rest of his life there as a research psychologist, devoting himself after retirement to devising and publicising a refined version of his ideology from the s that he called Beyondism.
He argued that there was no scientific proof of racial differences in intelligence and that this should not therefore be used as a justification for policies in education or employment.
According to Franz Samelson, this change in attitude had become widespread by then,  with very few studies in race differences in intelligence, a change brought out by an increase in the number of psychologists not from a "lily-white Anglo-Saxon" background but from Jewish backgrounds.
Other factors that influenced American psychologists were the economic changes brought about by the depression and the reluctance of psychologists to risk being associated with the Nazi claims of a master race. He claimed social support systems designed to help the disadvantaged had a regressive effect.
Shockley subsequently claimed the most competent American population group were the descendants of original European settlers, because of the extreme selective pressures imposed by the harsh conditions of early colonialism.The debate on the inequalities of race will never be resolved.
Our public officials argue the matter all the way from Capitol Hill down to the local town hall. Yet, the problem still exists.
The shifting debate has painted supporters of race-based affirmative action into a difficult corner. Most agree the barriers to low-income students are a serious problem that should be addressed, and of course, many minority students are also low-income.
Over the past eight years, CoreStates has invested millions of dollars in the company’s diversity culture-change initiatives. Every employee in the company participates in a three-day diversity.
Jun 17, · Over the last decade, clogged social mobility and rising economic inequality have shifted the conversation on campuses and in the country as a whole. The history of the race and intelligence controversy concerns the historical development of a debate, concerning possible explanations of group differences encountered in the study of race and grupobittia.com the beginning of IQ testing around the time of World War I there have been observed differences between average scores of different population groups, but there has been no agreement.
The triumph of 21st century free market biotechnology, the medical-industrial complex, and continuing health inequalities by race were all epitomized by the ongoing exploitation of Henrietta Lacks’s cells.