Contributors to this volume explore how Asian influences have been adapted to American desires in literary works and at Buddhist poetics, or how Buddhist practices emerge in literary works. Starting with early aesthetic theories of Ernest Fenollosa, made famous but also distorted by Ezra Pound, the book moves on to the countercultural voices associated with the Beat movement and its friends and heirs such as Ginsberg, Kerouac, Snyder, Giorno, Waldman, and Whalen. An interview with Kingston is included. Postwar American writers rebelled in a variety of ways.
Basic teachings[ edit ] Nichiren's teachings encompass a great many concepts. Briefly, the basic practice of Nichiren Buddhism is chanting the invocation Nam-myoho-renge-kyo to a mandala inscribed by Nichiren, called the Gohonzon.
He considered his disciples the " Bodhisattvas of the Earth " who appeared in the Lotus Sutra with the vow to spread the correct teaching and thereby establish a peaceful and just society.
It is one of six new forms of Shin Bukkyo English: A prevailing pessimism existed associated with the perceived arrival of the Age of the Latter Day of the Law. The era was marked by an intertwining relationship between Buddhist schools and the state which included clerical corruption.
It was the most frequently read and recited sutra by the literate lay class and its message was disseminated widely through art, folk tales, music, and theater. It was commonly held that it had powers to bestow spiritual and worldly benefits to individuals.
Nichiren Nichiren developed his thinking in this midst of confusing Lotus Sutra practices and Responses to the spread of buddhism competing array of other "Old Buddhism" and "New Buddhism" schools. Modern scholarship on Nichiren's life tries to provide sophisticated textual and sociohistorical analyses to cull longstanding myths about Nichiren that accrued over time from what is actually concretized.
As his life unfolded he engaged in a "circular hermeneutic " in which the interplay of the Lotus Sutra text and his personal experiences verified and enriched each other in his mind.
From initial studies to [ edit ] For more than 20 years Nichiren examined Buddhist texts and commentaries at Mount Hiei's Enryaku-ji temple and other major centers of Buddhist study in Japan.
In later writings he claimed he was motivated by four primary questions: Throughout his career Nichiren carried his personal copy of the Lotus Sutra which he continually annotated.
He took issue with other Buddhist schools of his time that stressed transcendence over immanence. Nichiren's emphasis on "self-power" Jpn. These four critiques were later collectively referred to as his "four dictums.
Between and he proselytized and converted individuals, mainly attracting mid- to lower-ranking samurai and local landholders : Drawing on Tendai thinking about the nonduality of person and land, Nichiren argued that the truth and efficacy of the people's religious practice will be expressed in the outer conditions of their land and society.
He thereby associated the natural disasters of his age with the nation's attachment to inferior teachings, predicted foreign invasion and internal rebellion, and called for the return to legitimate dharma to protect the country.
As a result, he was subjected to persecution which included two assassination attempts, an attempted beheading and two exiles. Hokke shikidoku ," fulfilling the predictions on the 13th chapter Fortitude that votaries would be persecuted by ignorant lay people, influential priests, and their friends in high places.
Here Nichiren is referring to the primordial buddha revealed in Chapter 16 "Life Span of the Thus Come One" who eternally appears and engages in human events in order to save living beings from their state of unhappiness.
Nichiren further developed the Tiantai doctrine of "three thousand realms in a single thought-moment". Nichiren was acutely aware of the social and political turmoil of his country and spiritual confusion of people in the Latter Day of the Law.
True practitioners must go beyond mental or verbal practices and actively speak up against and oppose prevailing thoughts and philosophies that denigrate the message of the Lotus Sutra. Nichiren set the example and was willing to lay down his life for its propagation and realization.
This has been described as embodying the same condition or state he attained in a physical object of devotion worship so that others could attain that equivalent condition of enlightenment.
Inviolable shall remain these vows! Rather, he expressed a resolve to fulfill his mission despite the consequences.
During this time he devoted himself to training disciples, : In so doing, according to him, he validated the 13th "Fortitude" chapter of the Lotus Sutra in which a host of bodhisattvas promise to face numerous trials that follow in the wake of upholding and spreading the sutra in the evil age following the death of the Buddha:Lord Ganesha bronze contemporary statue from Indonesia.
Photo credit: Kashgar. Ganesh is one of the best known and loved deities in the Hindu pantheon of gods, and indeed is the most recognised outside of India. But who is this elephant headed fellow, and why is he so popular?
I respond to common arguments against racism. Page 2. Return to Home Page. Back to Page One. Page Three. 5. Whites are all child molesters. Yet another myth spread by nigger lovers to instill white guilt and hide the fact that when it comes to crime and slovenly behavior, niggers win every time.
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The responses to the spread of Buddhism in China vary in many ways. Some rejecting the spread, while others supporting it, either way, it spread quickly and effectively. Even though the majority rejected Buddhism, it did not stay that way for long. Responses to the Spread of Buddhism in China Buddhism gained popularity in India and, like all popular religions, spread to other countries.
Buddhism soon spread to China and was received with mixed results; Many thought this religion was the center of all of China's problems while others accepted Buddhism. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.