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Turing machine The Church—Turing—Deutsch thesis[ edit ] The classic Church—Turing thesis claims that any computer as powerful as a Turing machine can, in principle, calculate anything that a human can calculate, given enough time. Turing moreover showed that there exist universal Turing machines which can compute anything any other Turing machine can compute—that they are generalizable Turing machines.
But the limits of practical computation are set by physicsnot by theoretical computer science: He proved that his universal machine can compute any function that any Turing machine can compute; and he put forward, and advanced philosophical arguments in support of, the thesis here called Turing's thesis.
But a thesis concerning the extent of effective methods—which is to say, concerning the extent of procedures of a certain sort that a human being unaided by machinery is capable of carrying out—carries no implication concerning the extent of the procedures that machines are capable of carrying out, even machines acting in accordance with 'explicitly stated rules.
It is stronger because a human or Turing machine computing with pencil and paper under Turing's conditions is a finitely realizable physical system.
Experimental confirmation[ edit ] So far there is Physics is fun experimental confirmation of either binary or quantized nature of the universe, which are basic for digital physics. The few attempts made in this direction would include the experiment with holometer designed by Craig Hoganwhich among others would detect a bit structure of space-time.
A new result of the experiment released on December 3,after a year of data collection, has ruled out Hogan's theory of a pixelated universe to a high degree of statistical significance 4.
The study found that space-time is not quantized at the scale being measured. Proponents of digital physics claim that such continuous symmetries are only convenient and very good approximations of a discrete reality. For example, the reasoning leading to systems of natural units and the conclusion that the Planck length is a minimum meaningful unit of distance suggests that at some level, space itself is quantized.
A number—in particular a real numberone with an infinite number of digits—was defined by Turing to be computable if a Turing machine will continue to spit out digits endlessly. In other words, there is no "last digit". But this sits uncomfortably with any proposal that the universe is the output of a virtual-reality exercise carried out in real time or any plausible kind of time.
Known physical laws including quantum mechanics and its continuous spectra are very much infused with real numbers and the mathematics of the continuum. Thus, from the point of view of strict mathematical description, the thesis that everything is a computing system in this second sense cannot be supported".
When the equations of quantum theory describe a continuous but not-directly-observable transition between two values of a discrete quantity, what they are telling us is that the transition does not take place entirely within one universe. So perhaps the price of continuous motion is not an infinity of consecutive actions, but an infinity of concurrent actions taking place across the multiverse.
Locality[ edit ] Some argue that extant models of digital physics violate various postulates of quantum physics. This criticism has two possible answers. First, any notion of locality in the digital model does not necessarily have to correspond to locality formulated in the usual way in the emergent spacetime.
A concrete example of this case was given by Lee Smolin. Thus, the assumption that the experimenter could have decided to measure different components of the spins than he actually did is, strictly speaking, not true.Physics Can Be Fun [Y.
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