Micro-Engineering makes HOn3 flex track and dual gauge track in various codes 70, 55 and some
Official scales for the gauges were drawn up but not at first rigidly followed and not necessarily correctly proportioned for the gauge chosen.
British OO standards operate on track significantly too narrow. This arose due to British locomotives and rolling stock being smaller than those found elsewhere, leading to an increase in scale to enable H0 scale mechanisms to be used.
Most commercial scales have standards that include wheel flanges that are too deep, wheel treads that are too wide, and rail tracks that are too large. In H0 scale, the rail heights are codes87, 53 Later, modellers became dissatisfied with inaccuracies and developed standards in which everything is correctly scaled.
These are used by modellers but have not spread to mass-production because the inaccuracies and overscale properties of the commercial scales ensure reliable operation and allow for shortcuts necessary for cost control.
Check-rail and wing-rail clearances are similarly accurate. It gives a better appearance than OO though pointwork is not as close to reality as P4. It suits many where time and improved appearance are important. There is a small following of finescale OO which uses the same For each kind of module system, there is an interface standard, so that modules made by different participants may be connected, even if they have never been connected before.
Many of these module types are listed in the Layout standards organizations section of this article. Couplers and connectors[ edit ] Main article: Horn hook couplers have largely given way to a design known as a working knuckle coupler which was popularized by the Kadee Quality Products Co.
Working knuckle couplers are a closer approximation to the "automatic" couplers used on the prototype there and elsewhere. Also in HO, the European manufacturers have standardized, but on a coupler mount, not a coupler: None of the popular couplers has any resemblance to the prototype three-link chains generally used on the continent.
For British modellers, whose most popular scale is OO, the normal coupler is a tension-lock coupler, which, again has no pretence of replicating the usual prototype three-link chain couplers. Bachmann and more recently Hornby have begun to offer models fitted with NEM coupler pockets.
This theoretically enables modellers of British railways to substitute any other NEM coupler, though many Bachmann models place the coupler pocket at the wrong height.
A fairly common alternative is to use representations of chain couplings as found on the prototype, though these require large radius curves to be used to avoid derailments. Other scales have similar ranges of non-compatible couplers available.
In all scales couplers can be exchanged, with varying degrees of difficulty. The landscape in this N scale town includes weathered buildings and tall uncut grass. Some modellers pay attention to landscaping their layout, creating a fantasy world or modelling an actual location, often historic.
Landscaping is termed "scenery building" or "scenicking". Constructing scenery involves preparing a sub-terrain using a wide variety of building materials, including but not limited to screen wire, a lattice of cardboard strips, or carved stacks of expanded polystyrene styrofoam sheets.
Scatter or flock is a substance used in the building of dioramas and model railways to simulate the effect of grass, poppies, fireweed, track ballast and other scenic ground cover.
Scatter used to simulate track ballast is usually fine-grained ground granite. Scatter which simulates coloured grass is usually tinted sawdustwood chips or ground foam.
Foam or natural lichen or commercial scatter materials can be used to simulate shrubbery. An alternative to scatter, for grass, is static grass which uses static electricity to make its simulated grass actually stand up. Buildings and structures can be purchased as kits, or built from cardboard, balsa woodbasswoodother soft woods, paperor polystyrene or other plastic.
Trees can be fabricated from materials such as Western sagebrushcandytuftand caspia, to which adhesive and model foliage are applied; or they can be bought ready-made from specialist manufacturers.
Water can be simulated using polyester casting resinpolyurethaneor rippled glass. Rocks can be cast in plaster or in plastic with a foam backing. Castings can be painted with stains to give colouring and shadows.
Weathering[ edit ] Weathering refers to making a model look used and exposed to weather by simulating dirt and wear on real vehicles, structures and equipment.
Most models come out of the box looking new, because unweathered finishes are easier to produce. Also, the wear a freight car or building undergoes depends not only on age but where it is used. Rail cars in cities accumulate grime from building and automobile exhaust and graffitiwhile cars in deserts may be subjected to sandstorms which etch or strip paint.
A model that is weathered would not fit as many layouts as a pristine model which can be weathered by its purchaser.Sterling Rail, Inc.
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HO Scale Model Train Parts and Spares. The HO scale is the most commonly used scale in the world of model railroading. As a result, finding HO scale model train parts and spares might be simpler than you think. What you need to remember, though, is that some manufacturers even market accessories and figurines in the HO scale primarily to attract train modellers.