Industrial Revolution Looking for online biographies of important people of the Industrial Revolution? Check out our companion page: Biographies of the Industrial Revolution to find lots of more resources. Easier - An industrial revolution occurs when people move from living and working on farms to working in factories and living in cities.
However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then.
Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term. This is still a subject of debate among some historians.
Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,  beginning in the second half of the 18th century.
By the s the Industrial revolution era gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles — mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.
Iron making — the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. The steam engine began being used to pump water to power blast air in the mid s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power.
It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge.
Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades. Invention of machine tools — The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathecylinder boring machine and the milling machine. Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution British textile industry statistics In Britain imported 2.
In raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines. Value added by the British woollen industry was Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately in In approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by In cotton spun amounted to 5.
In less than 0. In there were 50, spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.
In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth.
By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing. Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange. In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers. Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops.
India produced a variety of cotton cloth, some of exceptionally fine quality. Sea island cotton grew in tropical areas and on barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina, but did poorly inland. Sea island cotton began being exported from Barbados in the s. Upland green seeded cotton grew well on inland areas of the southern U.
Following the discovery of a trade route to India around southern Africa by the Portuguese, the Dutch established the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie abbr.Tools and techniques to ensure your company will stand out in the new age of digitization.
See also “A Guide to Leading the Next Industrial Revolution.”. The Victorian era within England marked a huge time for a change.
Really, this was a global change that took place in many other countries as well. One of the major reasons that brought change in the Victorian England was the industrial revolution during the s which led to the emergence of numerous factories.
The first operative factory can be traced by to but with industrialization, more and more factories can into existence. A major change in the iron industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio-fuels with coal.
For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about to sometime between and This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
The Industrial Revolution (–). The term Industrial Revolution, like similar historical concepts, is more convenient than precise.
It is convenient because history requires division into periods for purposes of understanding and instruction and because there were sufficient innovations at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries to justify the choice of this as one of the periods.