These did not make it onto the meeting web site and conference organizers have declined to make them avalable to non-attendees. However, someone in Europe sent a full set of abstracts along with handwritten margin notes. There were many sessions devoted to correlating sheep codons to scrapie susceptibility in this or that flock or breed.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. We investigated the frequencies of bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region 23indel and bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region 12indeloctapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand.
The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup.
In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle.
Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. Susceptibility or resistance to TSEs can be influenced by several factors of the host prion protein, such as specific amino acid polymorphisms, number of octapeptide repeats present and prion protein expression levels.
Amino acid mutations in the prion protein are major factors influencing susceptibility and resistance to TSEs in humans and sheep. Susceptibility to BSE may also be enhanced by bovine PrPC having 7 or more octapeptide repeats, though only Brown Swiss cattle have been shown to have 7 octapeptide repeats [ 310 ].
The first polymorphism is a bp deletion 23del within the upper region of the promoter that removes a binding site for the RP58 repressor protein, and the second is a bp deletion 12del within intron 1 that removes an SP1 transcription factor binding site. Cattle possessing these deletions and therefore lacking binding sites for their respective regulatory elements have been reported to be more susceptible to classical BSE [ 1224 ], but these polymorphisms do not influence resistance to atypical BSE [ 26 ].
Based on results of molecular weight analysis, atypical BSE can be divided into two subtypes: The EK change is analogous to the human EK amino acid replacement, which is a trigger of the development of heritable human TSE [ 8 ].
Recently, new information regarding the frequency and distribution of bovine PRNP indel polymorphisms has been reported for Vietnamese local cattle and native Chinese cattle [ 172729 ], and the information suggests that Asian local breed cattle have a variety of genetic divergences within the PRNP for potential association with BSE.
We collected liver or spleen samples from cattle Bos taurus and B. Vietnamese samples were collected from nine provinces in the northern part of Vietnam at the period from July to August in Indonesian samples were collected from seven provinces in March For the Thai samples, we bought spleens of cattle and water buffalo at several grocery stores belonging to three different logistic groups in Bangkok in December All of the bovine liver and spleen samples were subjected to extraction of genomic DNA as described elsewhere [ 17 ].data for the PRNP genotype of the Anatolian water buf-falo, determine of the Murrah and crossbred buffaloes PRNP indel polymorphisms for the first time, and com-pare allele/genotype frequencies with those in other buf-falo breeds.
Furthermore, in order to see genetic resistance status of the buffaloes in terms ofPRNP indel distribution. In contrast, heterozygous knockout mice (Prnp +/−) exhibit a prolonged incubation time and Prnp − / − animals are resistant to the disease (27⤻, 28)⤻.
Transferring these results to cattle, low-expressing promoter variants of PRNP lead to a decreased expression of the PRNP gene and less PrP protein.
Different overall sensitivities of prion protein toward urea denaturation occurs with stabilities in the following species order: hamster.
However, one case of H-type BSE has recently been associated with EK polymorphism in the prion protein gene (PRNP). Two polymorphisms in the bovine PRNP are also associated with susceptibility to classical BSE: a 23 bp insertion/deletion (indel) in the PRNP promoter region and a 12 bp indel in the first intron.
No information . Two non-coding polymorphisms in the bovine PRNP are also associated with susceptibility to classical BSE: a 23 bp indel in the PRNP promoter region and a 12 bp indel in the first intron (Sander et al., ). The 12 bp indel is the major component of resistance to .
PRNP examination provided conflicting results from previous bison PRNP studies, and genotype .. 44 2. Observed PRNP exon 3 allelic and genotypic frequencies in individuals from elk, bison, and buffalo are all at high risk for developing this disease through infection with various species of Brucella.