He is on a mission to find the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro. Join him on his mission. Professor Indus and you go on a mission to find the city of Mohenjo-Daro, explore the site when find it, dig for artifacts, put them in a museum and find out about the mysterious priest king. Image reproduced with permission of the BBC A day with a bread maker's son in an ancient city:
The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenet—indeed, a passion—of the environmental movement, especially in the United States.
For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth.
It is an island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for escape from our own too-muchness. Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to save the planet.
The more one knows of its peculiar history, the more one realizes that wilderness is not quite what it seems. Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it is quite profoundly a human creation—indeed, the creation of very particular human cultures at very particular moments in human history.
It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization. Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural.
As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of our own unexamined longings and desires.
To assert the unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to many readers, so let me hasten to add that the nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories.
Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to others. The torrents of mist shoot out from the base of a great waterfall in the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to the roar of the water and gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach.
Remember the feelings of such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too.
The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for forty years, and where they had nearly abandoned their God to worship a golden idol. And he was there in the wilderness for forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.
But by the end of the nineteenth century, all this had changed. The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in could declare wildness to be the preservation of the world suggests the sea change that was going on.
Wilderness had once been the antithesis of all that was orderly and good—it had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the garden wall—and yet now it was frequently likened to Eden itself.
One by one, various corners of the American map came to be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to visit and see them for themselves.
Niagara Falls was the first to undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. Yosemite was deeded by the U.
The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is that so many people fought to prevent its completion.
Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an emerging movement to preserve wilderness. Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by portraying such an act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and vandalism.
The sources of this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for the purposes of this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings:Marcuse’s case for repression — of thought, conscience, speech, and science — in the name of the “right” ideas has apparently persuaded many powerful American cultural organs today.
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But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.