Our experiences have told us that, with a little work, we humans can clone just about anything we want, from frogs to sheep—and probably even ourselves. So we can clone things. But why would we want to?
Advertisement Cloning for medicine: Others trembled at the portent of a "Brave New World" of identical humans farmed for spare parts or as cannon fodder.
As it turns out, neither came to pass. Human cloning -- complicated, risky and ethically contentious -- has largely been replaced as the holy grail of regenerative medicine by other technologies, say experts.
It involves removing the DNA-containing nucleus of a cell other than an egg or sperm -- a skin cell, for example -- and implanting it into an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed.
In Dolly's case, the gene-encoding cell was taken from a mammary gland, which saw the ewe named for buxom country singer Dolly Parton. Once transferred, the egg reprogrammes the mature DNA back to an embryonic state with the aid of an electric jolt, and starts dividing to form a single-parent embryo.
No human is known to ever have been created in this way. Slippery slope Cloning as a human reproductive technique is a global no-no. Apart from ethical and human rights objections raised to the creation of carbon-copy people, safety is a key concern.
In animals, only a handful of cloned embryos survive to birth, and many have health problems later. Experts say moral opposition to cloning as a means of reproduction, has clouded opinion on the technique's potential usefulness in regenerative medicine. Mainly, people fear that scientists will not be able to resist the temptation of playing God.
Yet, many people "fear that slippery slope That is probably what has held back the use of the technology. In the United States it is not explicitly illegal.
In therapeutic cloning, scientists harvest stem cells from a very early-stage embryo -- called a blastocyst -- a hollow ball of about cells.
Coaxing these "blank", juvenile cells into specialised liver or blood cells, for example, holds the promise of curing disease or repairing damaged organs. If grown from the patient's own DNA, the risk of transplant rejection is dramatically lowered.
But producing stem cells this way involves destroying embryos, another moral quagmire. And while a handful of scientists have succeeded in creating stem cells through SCNT, none have been grown into a functional human organ.
Induced pluripotent IP stem cells are created by stimulating mature, already specialised, cells back into a juvenile state -- basically cloning without the need for an embryo. The Nobel-capped discovery is the new focus in regenerative medicine focused, though the jury is out as to whether IP stem cells work as well as embryonic ones.
Another spinoff is mitochondrial gene transfer, a new way of planting parental DNA into a healthy egg to create an embryo free of harmful mutations carried by the mother.
Aaron Levine, a bioethicist at Georgia Tech, said cloning's biggest impact on human health is likely to come from animals raised to produce organs, tissue or biological drugs that will not be rejected by the human immune system.Cloning as a human reproductive technique is a global no-no.
Apart from ethical and human rights objections raised to the creation of carbon-copy people, safety is a key concern. What are the potential medical benefits of animal cloning? So far I have mostly read about the social problems cloning could create if applied to humans. Most people don’t understand the science of human cloning - or comprehend just how much medical progress will be stymied if all cloning is banned in the United States, scientists say.
Human cloning—complicated, risky and ethically contentious—has largely been replaced as the holy grail of regenerative medicine by other technologies, say experts. "It has not lived (up) to the hype," said Rosario Isasi of the University of Miami's Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy.
Jul 04, · Cloning for medicine: the miracle that wasn't AFP Relax News • July 4, This file photo taken on February 3, shows Dolly, the cloned sheep at the Edinburgh Institute.
Cloning bypasses this problem. The technique used - somatic cell nuclear transfer - has been well-known since Dolly the sheep became the first mammal to be cloned, in