Security research, malware analysis and hacking things. As such, forensic practitioners understand that these devices are prone for criminal use.
One of the most widely cited failings, mentioned by both the atheist left and the religious right, is that society is becoming more and more violent. For example, the 20th century is often mentioned as easily the most horrifying century in all of history, with two devastating world wars, the Jewish holocaust, the Chinese cultural revolution and the Rawanda massacres.
And even since the close of the 20th century, we have incidents such as the September 11 attacks, countless suicide bombings, and more. On the local and national levels, many in society decry the increasing violence seen on streets.
Mass shootings, not to mention everyday robberies and burglaries, are lamented by neighborhood groups as well as politicians.
Religious fundamentalists generally blame modern science, especially evolution, for our increasingly violent culture. For instance, at the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohioone display, warning of the consequences of a scientific worldview, features photos of a nuclear explosion, a collection of skulls from the holocaust, and what may be a photo of a woman undergoing an abortion.
Another exhibit in the museum, named "Graffiti Alley," displays news clips about birth control, abortion, divorce, mass murder, stem cells and war. Jerry Bergman of Answers in Genesis, which operates the Creation Museum, specifically blames Darwin's theory of evolution for the Jewish holocaust [ Bergman ]: Of the many factors that produced the Nazi holocaust and World War II, one of the most important was Darwin's notion that evolutionary progress occurs mainly as a result of the elimination of the weak in the struggle for survival.
Although it is no easy task to assess the conflicting motives of Hitler and his supporters, Darwinism-inspired eugenics clearly played a critical role. Darwinism justified and encouraged the Nazi views on both race and war. If the Nazi party had fully embraced and consistently acted on the belief that all humans were descendants of Adam and Eve and equal before the creator God, as taught in both the Old Testament and New Testament Scriptures, the holocaust would never have occurred.
On the other side of the spectrum, atheist scholars blame religion for modern violence. Christopher Hitchens writes that religion is "violent, irrational, intolerant, allied to racism, tribalism, and bigotry, invested in ignorance and hostile to free inquiry, contemptuous of women and coercive toward children" [ Hitchenspg.
Hitchens and other atheist writers emphasize the many religious wars through history as evidence for these claims. In particular, they connect the intolerance of the Inquisition and similar persecutions by Protestants to the the September 11 attacks.
For additional details, see Atheists. So what are the facts here, and who is really to blame? Is violence really increasing?
The remarkable fact in this debate is that the fundamental premise of both sides is utterly mistaken -- violence is not careening out of control. Quite to the contrary, it is actually on the decline, both within the U.
As a single example, violent crime in the U. Crime rates even declined during two recent severe recessions, from to and from toconfounding predictions by sociologists and law enforcement officials that these downturns would send crime rates soaring [ Fisher ].
As of the present date, the most detailed and comprehensive analysis of this phenomenon is a book by noted Harvard social scientist Steven Pinker, entitled The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. He begins his book as follows [ Pinkerbpg.
This book is about what may be the most important thing that has ever happened in human history. Believe it or not -- and I know that most people do not -- violence has declined over long stretches of time, and today we may be living in the most peaceable era in our species' existence. The decline, to be sure, has not been smooth; it has not brought violence down to zero; and it is not guaranteed to continue.
But it is an unmistakable development, visible on scales from millennia to years, from the waging of wars to the spanking of children.
Pinker is hardly a devout religious believer -- his review of biblical violence, for instance, is openly irreverent. But from another point of view, Pinker's book is deeply inspiring: His work also constitutes a striking refutation of those writers, both from the academic left and the religious right, who have decried our time as irredeemably fallen from the "good old days" years, decades, centuries or millennia ago when the human race was presumably more gentle and civilized.
Pinker's book is not an easy read. He meticulously documents his claims with extensive charts, graphs and footnotes. He invokes relatively sophisticated concepts such as "power-law distributions" with aplomb.
He does not bat an eyelash while describing the revolting instruments of torture and execution used in medieval "Christian" Europe.
He documents the violent practices of many native peoples. But he has a clear purpose in all of this: He also attempts to understand this phenomenon, so that we can hasten its progress, although it is clear that he does not have all the answers.
Highlights from Pinker's book Here are some brief highlights from Pinker's book: Ancient primitive societies were hardly the Edenic paradises that they are often pictured to be.The Importance of History.
by David Crabtree. History is important.
In centuries past this statement would have seemed self-evident. Ancient cultures devoted much time . A high level of public concern is being expressed in Australia about the state of violent crime.
While acknowledging that much of this concern is justified, and that there is a troubling and deep seated problem of violence in Australian society, Chappell attempts to provide a balanced appraisal of the nature and scope of the problem.
He also considers some of the strategies which might be used.
Some aspects of society can be both functional and dysfunctional. For example, crime is dysfunctional in that it is associated with physical violence, loss of property, and fear. But according to Durkheim and other functionalists, crime is also functional for society because it leads to heightened awareness of shared moral bonds and increased.
To be sure, there is some evidence to suggest that chronic exposure to terrorism is more psychologically harmful than the experience of a single terrorist attack (such as 9/11), but even in this extreme case people demonstrate a great deal of psychological resilience. 11 Political Communication in Action symbolic power of the media, the audience will generally retain a mini-mum of autonomy and independence, and engage more or less actively, instead of purely passively, in the useof the means of mass communi-.
science evidence. Early studies in the s and s indicated physical evidence was available at most crime scenes, but little scientific evidence was collected and had minimal impact on case outcome. The most detailed studies of the use of scientific evidence in the investigation and adjudication of cases were funded by NIJ in the s.