On April 19,a protest against this decision was read on behalf of 14 free cities of Germany and six Lutheran princes who declared that the majority decision did not bind them because they were not a party to it and that if forced to choose between obedience to God and obedience to Caesar they must choose obedience to God.
Initially, the Protestant reformers maintained the hope that they could accomplish the reformation of the doctrine and life of the church from within, but this proved impossible because of the intransigence of the church, the polemic of the Protestant movements, or the political and… The world of the late medieval Roman Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one.
Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacyhad become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe.
These instances must be seen as exceptions, however, no matter how much they were played up by polemicists. For most people, the church continued to offer spiritual comfort. There is some evidence of anticlericalismbut the church at large enjoyed loyalty as it had before. One development is clear: The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented.
Reformers within the medieval church such as St. Francis of AssisiValdes founder of the WaldensiansJan Husand John Wycliffe addressed aspects in the life of the church in the centuries before In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdama great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.
In his Ninety-five Theses, he attacked the indulgence system, insisting that the pope had no authority over purgatory and that the doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel. Scripture alone is authoritative sola scriptura and justification is by faith sola fidenot by works.
While he did not intend to break with the Catholic church, a confrontation with the papacy was not long in coming. In Luther was excommunicated ; what began as an internal reform movement had become a fracture in western Christendom. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, John R.
The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. Zwingli agreed with Luther in the centrality of the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a different understanding of the Holy Communion.
Courtesy of the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switz. Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century.
Opponents of the ancient Trinitarian dogma made their appearance as well. Known as Sociniansafter the name of their founder, they established flourishing congregations, especially in Poland. Another important form of Protestantism as those protesting against their suppressions were designated by the Diet of Speyer in is Calvinismnamed for John Calvina French lawyer who fled France after his conversion to the Protestant cause.
In BaselSwitzerland, Calvin brought out the first edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion inthe first systematic, theological treatise of the new reform movement. However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther.This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 century, the religious schism which split western Christianity.
In the early 16th century, western and central Europe followed the Latin Church, headed by the pope. While religion permeated the lives of everyone in Europe—even if the poor focused on religion as a way. This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 century, the religious schism which split western Christianity.
Robert Wilde Wilde has a B.A. in History and an M.A. in Medieval Studies from Sheffield University. In the early 16th century, western and central Europe followed the Latin Church, headed by the pope.
The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church.
The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
Protestant Reformation - Words Tia P. Professor William Cook European History September 23, The Protestant Reformation The protestant reformation was a religious and intellectual disturbance that broke up the Catholic Church in Europe in the 16th century.
The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented. Reformers within the medieval church such as St. Francis of Assisi, Valdes (founder of the Waldensians), Jan Hus, and John Wycliffe addressed aspects in the life of .