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Many ask the simple question "what makes an airplane fly"? The answer one frequently gets is misleading and often just plain wrong. We hope that the answers provided here will clarify many misconceptions about lift and that you will adopt our explanation when explaining lift to others.
We are going to show you that lift is easier to understand if one starts with Newton rather than Bernoulli. We will also show you that the popular explanation that most of us were taught is misleading at best and that lift is due to the wing diverting air down.
Let us start by defining three descriptions of lift commonly used in textbooks and training manuals. The first we will call the Mathematical Aerodynamics Description which is used by aeronautical engineers.
These are design tools which are powerful for computing lift but do not lend themselves to an intuitive understanding of flight. The second description we will call the Popular Explanation which is based on the Bernoulli principle.
The primary advantage of this description is that it is easy to understand and has been taught for many years. Because of its simplicity, it is used to describe lift in most flight training manuals.
The major disadvantage is that it relies on the "principle of equal transit times" which is wrong. This description focuses on the shape of the wing and prevents one from understanding such important phenomena as inverted flight, power, ground effect, and the dependence of lift on the angle of attack of the wing.
The third description, which we are advocating here, we will call the Physical Description of lift. The physical description is useful for understanding flight, and is accessible to all who are curious.
Little math is needed to yield an estimate of many phenomena associated with flight. This description gives a clear, intuitive understanding of such phenomena as the power curve, ground effect, and high-speed stalls.
However, unlike the mathematical aerodynamics description, the physical description has no design or simulation capabilities.
The popular explanation of lift Students of physics and aerodynamics are taught that airplanes fly as a result of Bernoulli's principle, which says that if air speeds up the pressure is lowered. Thus a wing generates lift because the air goes faster over the top creating a region of low pressure, and thus lift.
This explanation usually satisfies the curious and few challenge the conclusions. Some may wonder why the air goes faster over the top of the wing and this is where the popular explanation of lift falls apart. In order to explain why the air goes faster over the top of the wing, many have resorted to the geometric argument that the distance the air must travel is directly related to its speed.
The usual claim is that when the air separates at the leading edge, the part that goes over the top must converge at the trailing edge with the part that goes under the bottom.
This is the so-called "principle of equal transit times". The average speeds of the air over and under the wing are easily determined because we can measure the distances and thus the speeds can be calculated. From Bernoulli's principle, we can then determine the pressure forces and thus lift.
Figure 1 shows what such an airfoil would look like. Now, imagine what a Boeing wing would have to look like! Fig 1 Shape of wing predicted by principle of equal transit time.
If we look at the wing of a typical small plane, which has a top surface that is 1.Look at that table for a while notice that positive, zero or negative exponents are really part of the same pattern, i.e.
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